King James Bible
with Catholic Commentary by George Leo Haydock

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Judges 7

Gideon’s army reduced. (1-8) Gideon is encouraged. (9-15) The defeat of the Midianites. (16-22) The Ephraimites take Oreb and Zeeb. (23-25)

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Gideon’s army reduced

1 Then Jerubbaal, who is Gideon, and all the people that were with him, rose up early, and pitched beside the well of Harod: so that the host of the Midianites were on the north side of them, by the hill of Moreh, in the valley.

2 And the LORD said unto Gideon, The people that are with thee are too many for me to give the Midianites into their hands, lest Israel vaunt themselves against me, saying, Mine own hand hath saved me.

3 Now therefore go to, proclaim in the ears of the people, saying, Whosoever is fearful and afraid, let him return and depart early from mount Gilead. And there returned of the people twenty and two thousand; and there remained ten thousand.

4 And the LORD said unto Gideon, The people are yet too many; bring them down unto the water, and I will try them for thee there: and it shall be, that of whom I say unto thee, This shall go with thee, the same shall go with thee; and of whomsoever I say unto thee, This shall not go with thee, the same shall not go.

5 So he brought down the people unto the water: and the LORD said unto Gideon, Every one that lappeth of the water with his tongue, as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou set by himself; likewise every one that boweth down upon his knees to drink.

6 And the number of them that lapped, putting their hand to their mouth, were three hundred men: but all the rest of the people bowed down upon their knees to drink water.

7 And the LORD said unto Gideon, By the three hundred men that lapped will I save you, and deliver the Midianites into thine hand: and let all the other people go every man unto his place.

8 So the people took victuals in their hand, and their trumpets: and he sent all the rest of Israel every man unto his tent, and retained those three hundred men: and the host of Midian was beneath him in the valley.

Gideon is encouraged

9 And it came to pass the same night, that the LORD said unto him, Arise, get thee down unto the host; for I have delivered it into thine hand.

10 But if thou fear to go down, go thou with Phurah thy servant down to the host:

11 And thou shalt hear what they say; and afterward shall thine hands be strengthened to go down unto the host. Then went he down with Phurah his servant unto the outside of the armed men that were in the host.

12 And the Midianites and the Amalekites and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like grasshoppers for multitude; and their camels were without number, as the sand by the sea side for multitude.

13 And when Gideon was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream unto his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the host of Midian, and came unto a tent, and smote it that it fell, and overturned it, that the tent lay along.

14 And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon the son of Joash, a man of Israel: for into his hand hath God delivered Midian, and all the host.

15 And it was so, when Gideon heard the telling of the dream, and the interpretation thereof, that he worshipped, and returned into the host of Israel, and said, Arise; for the LORD hath delivered into your hand the host of Midian.

The defeat of the Midianites

16 And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put a trumpet in every man’s hand, with empty pitchers, and lamps within the pitchers.

17 And he said unto them, Look on me, and do likewise: and, behold, when I come to the outside of the camp, it shall be that, as I do, so shall ye do.

18 When I blow with a trumpet, I and all that are with me, then blow ye the trumpets also on every side of all the camp, and say, The sword of the LORD, and of Gideon.

19 So Gideon, and the hundred men that were with him, came unto the outside of the camp in the beginning of the middle watch; and they had but newly set the watch: and they blew the trumpets, and brake the pitchers that were in their hands.

20 And the three companies blew the trumpets, and brake the pitchers, and held the lamps in their left hands, and the trumpets in their right hands to blow withal: and they cried, The sword of the LORD, and of Gideon.

21 And they stood every man in his place round about the camp; and all the host ran, and cried, and fled.

22 And the three hundred blew the trumpets, and the LORD set every man’s sword against his fellow, even throughout all the host: and the host fled to Bethshittah in Zererath, and to the border of Abelmeholah, unto Tabbath.

The Ephraimites take Oreb and Zeeb

23 And the men of Israel gathered themselves together out of Naphtali, and out of Asher, and out of all Manasseh, and pursued after the Midianites.

24 And Gideon sent messengers throughout all mount Ephraim, saying, come down against the Midianites, and take before them the waters unto Bethbarah and Jordan. Then all the men of Ephraim gathered themselves together, and took the waters unto Bethbarah and Jordan.

25 And they took two princes of the Midianites, Oreb and Zeeb; and they slew Oreb upon the rock Oreb, and Zeeb they slew at the winepress of Zeeb, and pursued Midian, and brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon on the other side Jordan.

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G Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Ver. 1. Fountain. The same also called Areth, as the copies of the Sept. and of S. Jerom vary. Bonf. — Harad, or “of trouble,” either because the Madianites were filled with terror at the approach of Gedeon, or because so many of his soldiers returned home through fear. M. — Perhaps it may be the same which is called the fountain of Jezrael, near which Saul encamped, 1 K. xxix. 1. C. — Adrichomius places it on the south of Gelboe, which is called the high hill. M. — Heb. “on the north side of them, by the hill of More, in the vale.” H. — Jezrael was between Gelboe to the south, and Hermon to the north. C.

Ver. 2. Lest Israel, &c. by this we see that God will not choose for his instruments in great achievements, which depend purely on his grace, such as, through pride and self-conceit, will take the glory to themselves. Ch. — Yet Gedeon had only 32,000 to encounter 135,000 fighting men; so that if all had remained with him, they would each had to engage above four men, v. 3. C. viii. 10. M.

Ver. 3. Return, agreeably to the law of Moses. Deut. xx. 8. If God had not enforced this order, it would perhaps have been neglected in the hurry, particularly as all seemed to have joined the army with such alacrity. M. — Scipio going to destroy Carthage, was informed that some Sicilian knights went on this expedition with extreme reluctance and fear; whereupon he gave 300 leave to depart. Livy xxix. — Galaad perhaps may have been substituted for Gelboe, as there seems to have been none from the Galaad, on the other side of the Jordan, in the army of Gedeon. C. — Abulensis thinks that some little mountain of this name might be in the vicinity of Jezrael. — Home. They were terrified at the sight of the enemy’s camp. M.

Ver. 5. Tongues. Some Latin copies add, “and hand,” as it is expressed in Heb. &c. in the following verse. They resembled dogs more in the hurry than in the method of taking water. An old proverb says, “the dog drinks and flees away,” (C.) alluding to the dogs of Egypt, who, through fear of the crocodiles which infest the banks of the Nile, lap the water with all expedition, “like a dog from the Nile.” Erasmus. H. Macrob. ii. 2. — Hence we might infer, that these 300 men were the most cowardly in the army, as Joseph. (v. 8,) Theod. (q. 15,) have done; (C.) and thus the glory of the victory would belong more incontrovertibly to God. H. — But as these 300, on this supposition, ought to have been disbanded, as well as the rest, we may rather conclude that they shewed greater courage and temperance by their posture, and were therefore retained (C.) to accompany their heroic leader in his perilous expedition. We must, nevertheless remark, that only those who preferred to acknowledge their fear, were disbanded according to the law; and as, among those who were not quite so cowardly, (H.) there would be some less courageous than others, (Amama) these might be selected by God, that no flesh should glory in his sight, 1 Cor. i. 29. H.

Ver. 7. That lapped water. These were preferred that took the water up in their hands, and so lapped it, before them who laid themselves quite down to the waters to drink; which argued a more eager and sensual disposition. Ch. — It is thought that the former would be more capable of supporting the fatigues of war. M. — The Jews suppose that those who knelt, had been accustomed to do so in honour of Baal. Lyranus concludes that they were extremely fatigued and thirsty, while the 300 underwent the labours of war with less inconvenience. Josephus observes that this experiment was made in the heat of the day; yet, if Providence had not interfered, it seems very improbable that 10,000 men should all be so eager for water. H.

Ver. 8. Victuals. It appears that they did not take sufficient, (C.) not expecting that they would have to pursue the enemy so far. C. viii. 5. 8.

Ver. 11. Servant. Thus he confessed that he was not entirely free from fear himself, v. 5. 10. H. — The most courageous feel less alarm, when they have a companion, (M.) as Diomede observed, when he desired that one or two might accompany him in the attempt to explore the enemy’s camp. Iliad x. — Arms. The greatest part of this immense crowd of people, who came to plunder, neglected the laws of war; as the Israelites had not dared, for a long time, to oppose them. A select number of 135,000 men in arms was destined to keep them in order, and to protect them. Among these Gedeon insinuated himself, to know how they were encamped, and what sentiments they entertained. C.

Ver. 13. A dream. Observation of dreams is commonly superstitious, and as such is condemned by the word of God; but in some extraordinary cases, as we here see, God is pleased by dreams to foretel what he is about to do. Ch. — See Gen. xl. Lev. xix. 26. Deut. xviii. 10. W. — The small company of Gedeon stood in need of every sort of encouragement. H.

Ver. 14. Sword and loaf are both derived from the same Heb. word, which signifies “to make war.” See Num. xiv. 9. But if there had been no connection or reason in the discourse of the soldier, (which was not the case, as Providence put it into his mouth,) the end would be equally obtained, which was to encourage Gedeon, and to inform him that the enemy was not without some apprehensions. C. — Gedeon was not of the richest family, but came with great expedition, as the rolling of the barley-loaf might designate. M. — He was also encamped upon an eminence, and presently threw the affairs of Madian into confusion. H. — He understands the language of the Madianites, as it was not very different from the Hebrew.

Ver. 15. Interpretation. Heb. “the breaking,” in allusion to a loaf or nut which must be broken. C. — Adored God, in thanksgiving. M.

Ver. 16. Lamps, or flambeaux, (C.) made of wood, full of turpentine. H. — The soldiers held one end in their hand, and when they had thrown down their pitchers, the sudden light, the sound of trumpets and of men on three sides of the camp, threw the various nations into the utmost consternation, as they very naturally supposed that they were surrounded with a great army. God also sent among them the spirit of confusion, so that they knew not one another. An ancient author, under the name of Tertullian, asserts that the 300 men were on horseback, and conquered by virtue of the cross, as the letter T, in Greek, stands for 300; (C.) and S. Aug. (q. 37,) follows up this idea, saying that, as the Greeks are put by the apostle for all the Gentiles, this letter was to insinuate, that the Gentiles chiefly would believe in Christ. Some of the Fathers have given a like mysterious explanation of the 318 servants of Abraham, as the two first letter of the name of Jesus denote 18. Eucher. Gen. xiv. 14. S. Amb. de Abr. i. 3. — We can never conquer our spiritual enemies, without a lively faith in our crucified Saviour. If Amama, and other enemies of the cross of Christ, ridicule these pious meditations of the Fathers, we need not wonder. See Apoc. xiii. 18. H.

Ver. 17. Camp. The three divisions stopt at the entrance, v. 21. C.

Ver. 18. Camp, and shout together to the Lord and to Gedeon: or rather “the sword of, &c. v. 20. The war is the Lord’s, victory to or by the hand of Gedeon.” Chald. He is the minister of God’s justice to punish Madian. M. — It is not derogation to God (C.) that honour is given to his servants. W. — Prot. supply the word which seems to be wanting. The sword of the Lord, &c. H.

Ver. 19. Watch. This was the second of the three watches known to the ancient Hebrews: in the New Testament, they followed the Roman discipline, and admitted four. Mat. xiv. 25. C. — Menochius thinks they did the same at this time. H. — Alarmed. They were not asleep. M. — We read of similar stratagems in the Roman history. The Falisci threw the Romans into consternation, by appearing among them in mourning weeds; (C.) others read in priestly attire, (H.) with flambeaux and serpents; as those of Veii did by means of burning torches. Grot. Frontin. Strat. ii. 4, &c. C. — Trumpets. In a mystical sense, the preachers of the gospel, in order, to spiritual conquests, must not only sound with the trumpet of the word of God, but must also break the earthen pitchers, by the mortification of the flesh and its passions, and carry lamps in their hands by the light of their virtues. Ch. — These lamps denote the virtues and miracles of the martyrs. V. Bede, c. 5. The things which would seem ridiculous, fill the enemy with terror and dismay. ibid. W.

Ver. 21. Camp. Hence the Madianites made no doubt but a great army was in the midst of the camp, and began to cut in pieces all whom they met. C.

Ver. 23. Bethsetta. These cities seem to have been near Bethsan. — And the border. Heb. “in Zererath,” (H.) which Junius takes to be Sarthan. — Abelmehula gave birth to Eliseus, and was 12 miles from Scythopolis. S. Jer. — Tebbath occurs no where else. But we read of Thebes, three miles from the last mentioned city, famous for the death of Abimelech. C. xi. 50. — Men. Probably those who had been sent home the preceding night. Upon hearing of the success which attended Gedeon, all the tribes began to be in motion.

Ver. 24. Bethbera, “the house of corn.” Serarius. — Many take it to be Bethabera, “the house of passage,” or the ford of the Jordan. The river was fordable on camels at any time. But in summer, people might cross the Jordan in many places on foot. C.

Ver. 25. Two men. That is, two of their chiefs. Ch. — Press. Heb. yekeb, denotes a cistern fit to contain wine. Isai. v. 2. Prov. iii. 10. — Zeb had concealed himself in it. — Jordan. They afterwards took occasion from this exploit to extol their own valour, and to quarrel with Gedeon. C.