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with Catholic Commentary by George Leo Haydock

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Joshua 10

Five kings war against Gibeon. (1-6) Joshua succours Gibeon The sun and moon stand still. (7-14) The kings are taken, their armies defeated, and they are put to death. (15-27) Seven other kings defeated and slain. (28-43)

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Five kings war against Gibeon

1 Now it came to pass, when Adonizedec king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

2 That they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, as one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty.

3 Wherefore Adonizedec king of Jerusalem, sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,

4 Come up unto me, and help me, that we may smite Gibeon: for it hath made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.

5 Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon, gathered themselves together, and went up, they and all their hosts, and encamped before Gibeon, and made war against it.

6 And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying, Slack not thy hand from thy servants; come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us: for all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the mountains are gathered together against us.

Joshua succours Gibeon The sun and moon stand still

7 So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he, and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valour.

8 And the LORD said unto Joshua, Fear them not: for I have delivered them into thine hand; there shall not a man of them stand before thee.

9 Joshua therefore came unto them suddenly, and went up from Gilgal all night.

10 And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.

11 And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Bethhoron, that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.

12 Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.

13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.

14 And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the LORD fought for Israel.

The kings are taken, their armies defeated, and they are put to death

15 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal.

16 But these five kings fled, and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah.

17 And it was told Joshua, saying, The five kings are found hid in a cave at Makkedah.

18 And Joshua said, Roll great stones upon the mouth of the cave, and set men by it for to keep them:

19 And stay ye not, but pursue after your enemies, and smite the hindmost of them; suffer them not to enter into their cities: for the LORD your God hath delivered them into your hand.

20 And it came to pass, when Joshua and the children of Israel had made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were consumed, that the rest which remained of them entered into fenced cities.

21 And all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace: none moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel.

22 Then said Joshua, Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings unto me out of the cave.

23 And they did so, and brought forth those five kings unto him out of the cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.

24 And it came to pass, when they brought out those kings unto Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said unto the captains of the men of war which went with him, Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these kings. And they came near, and put their feet upon the necks of them.

25 And Joshua said unto them, Fear not, nor be dismayed, be strong and of good courage: for thus shall the LORD do to all your enemies against whom ye fight.

26 And afterward Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five trees: and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening.

27 And it came to pass at the time of the going down of the sun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid great stones in the cave’s mouth, which remain until this very day.

Seven other kings defeated and slain

28 And that day Joshua took Makkedah, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain: and he did to the king of Makkedah as he did unto the king of Jericho.

29 Then Joshua passed from Makkedah, and all Israel with him, unto Libnah, and fought against Libnah:

30 And the LORD delivered it also, and the king thereof, into the hand of Israel; and he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein; he let none remain in it; but did unto the king thereof as he did unto the king of Jericho.

31 And Joshua passed from Libnah, and all Israel with him, unto Lachish, and encamped against it, and fought against it:

32 And the LORD delivered Lachish into the hand of Israel, which took it on the second day, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein, according to all that he had done to Libnah.

33 Then Horam king of Gezer came up to help Lachish; and Joshua smote him and his people, until he had left him none remaining.

34 And from Lachish Joshua passed unto Eglon, and all Israel with him; and they encamped against it, and fought against it:

35 And they took it on that day, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein he utterly destroyed that day, according to all that he had done to Lachish.

36 And Joshua went up from Eglon, and all Israel with him, unto Hebron; and they fought against it:

37 And they took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof, and all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining, according to all that he had done to Eglon; but destroyed it utterly, and all the souls that were therein.

38 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to Debir; and fought against it:

39 And he took it, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof; and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls that were therein; he left none remaining: as he had done to Hebron, so he did to Debir, and to the king thereof; as he had done also to Libnah, and to her king.

40 So Joshua smote all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the LORD God of Israel commanded.

41 And Joshua smote them from Kadeshbarnea even unto Gaza, and all the country of Goshen, even unto Gibeon.

42 And all these kings and their land did Joshua take at one time, because the LORD God of Israel fought for Israel.

43 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal.

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G Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Ver 1. Adonisedec means, “Lord of justice,” as Melchisedec denotes “the king of justice;” perhaps Salem was originally styled Zedec. Masius. — This king had probably some control over the neighbouring cities. M. — He was also in the greatest danger; and not daring to attack the Israelites, he resolves to fall upon the Gabaonites unawares, that other cities might be deterred from following their example. — Confederates. Heb. “and were among them,” which may signify either that the Israelites were to dwell in the towns belonging to the Gabaonites, or that the latter should live along with them, as one and the same people, following the same religion, and bound together by the same interests.

Ver. 2. Cities. Yet we read not of its king. C. ix. 11. C. — Sept. “It was like a royal metropolis.” H. — Valiant. Prudence therefore, and not fear, had influenced them to take this step.

Ver. 3. Hebron was about 24 miles south of Jerusalem, and Jerimoth 16. Lachis was a very famous city, (4 K. xiv. and xviii. 14,) about nine miles south of Eleutheropolis, which was itself situated about 20,000 paces towards the south of Jerusalem; (Itin. Anton.) though some assert it was 22 or 32 miles distant. Eusebius and S. Jerom generally fix the situation of places by this city. Eglon was twelve miles to the eastward of it. The Sept. read Odollam, (C.) which was either the same city, (Euseb.) or one probably near it. C. xii. 12. 5. and v. 35. 9.

Ver. 5. Amorrhites is a generical term, as well as Chanaanite, to denote the people of the country. The other kings did not come to the assistance (C.) of these five, v. 40. H. — Yet the people of Gabaon might suspect the worst, or exaggerate, in order to make Josue come with greater expedition. He was then at Galgal, above twenty miles distant, and set off the next night, coming unexpectedly upon the confederate kings early in the morning, v. 9.

Ver. 10. Troubled them. Sept. “filled them with consternation;” so that they knew not what to do. Ex. xxiii. 17. — Bethoron. There were two cities of this name in the tribe of Ephraim, rebuilt by Sara. 1 Par. vii. 24. The lower was twelve miles from Jerusalem. Maceda was eight from Eleutheropolis to the east, as Azeca was about the same distance west of Jerusalem, and not far from Soco. 1 K. xvii. 1. Thus Josue proceeded westward to Gabaon and Bethoron, where he defeated the confederates, and pursued them, as they fled to their respective cities in the south, on the road between Jerusalem and the country of the Philistines, as far as Maceda. H.

Ver. 11. Azeca, for the space of twelve miles. — Hailstones, of an uncommon size, accompanied with thunder and lightning. Hab. iii. 11. Joseph. v. 1. C. Eccli. xlvi. 6. — Of the same nature was the seventh plague of Egypt. Ex. ix. 23. M. — Real stones may very probably have been hurled against the enemy, by means of some hurricane or vulcano, which God directed against the Chanaanites. Several instances of showers of stones are recorded in history. C. Dissert. — Even quantities of stone and earth, sufficient to form new islands, have been thus thrown up. Montfaucon. — The isle of Santorin, in the Archipelago, appeared in 1707.

Ver. 12. Them. This may be considered as a canticle of victory, containing a fervent prayer, which was presently followed with the desired effect. — Aialon. Heb. “Sun, in Gabaon, be silent; (moved not) and thou, moon, in the valley of Aialon,” or “of the wood,” which was probably not far from Gabaon. Josue had pursued the enemy at mid-day, to the west of that city, when turning round, he addressed this wonderful command to the sun. It is supposed that the moon appeared at the same time. But the meaning may only be, that the sun and the course of the stars should be interrupted for a time. C. — The sun and the moon stood still in their habitation. Heb. iii. 11. M. — Many have called in question this miracle, with Maimonides, or have devised various means to explain it away, by having recourse to a parhelion or reflection of the sun by a cloud, or to a light which was reverberated by the mountains, after the sun was set, &c. Prœdam iv. 6. Spinosa, Grotius, Le Clerc. — But if these authors believe the Scriptures, they may spare themselves the trouble of devising such improbable explanations, as this fact is constantly represented as a most striking miracle. If S. Paul (Heb. xi. 30,) make no mention of it, he did not engage to specify every miracle that had occurred. He does not so much as mention Josue, nor the passage of the Jordan, &c. so that it is a matter of surprise that Grotius should adduce this negative argument, to disprove the reality of the miracle. C. — The pretended impossibility of it, or the inconvenience arising to the fatigued soldiers from the long continuance of the day, will make but small impression upon those who consider, that God was the chief agent; and that he who made all out of nothing, might easily stop the whole machinery of the world for a time, and afterwards put it in motion again, without causing any derangement in the different parts. C. — It is not material whether the sun turn round the earth, or the contrary. H. — The Hebrews generally supposed that the earth was immovable; and on this idea Josue addresses the sun. Philosophers have devised various intricate systems: but the Scripture is expressed in words suitable to the conceptions of the people. The exterior effect would be the same, whether the sun or the earth stood still. Pagan authors have not mentioned this miracle, because none of the works of that age have come down to us. We find, however, that they acknowledged a power in magic capable of effecting such a change.

Cessavere vices rerum dilataque longa,

Hæsit nocte dies: legi non paruit æther,

Torpuit & præceps audito carmine mundus.

Lucan, Phars. vi. See Odys. xii. 382. and xxiii. 242.

This miracle would not render Josue superior to Moses, as some have argued. For all miracles are equally impossible to man, and equally easy to God: the greatness of a miracle is ot a proof of greater sanctity. C. — Aialon lay to the south-west of Gabaon. H. — Josue ordered the moon to stop, as a necessary consequence of the sun’s standing still. God condescended to grant his request. W.

Ver. 13. The book of the just. In Heb. Sepher hayashar; an ancient book long since lost. Ch. — It was probably of the same nature with that of the wars of the Lord, (Num. xxi. 4,) containing an account of the most memorable occurrences which concerned the people of Israel, the just, or Ischuron. Deut. xxxiii. 5. Josephus (v. 2,) says, such “records were kept in the archives of the temple.” They were drawn up by people of character. The quotations inserted are in a poetical style, as the book might contain various canticles, though the rest was written in prose. See 2 K. i. 18. It might appear unnecessary for Josue to appeal to this work, as the fact in question was known to all. C. — But too great precaution could not be taken to prevent the danger of people calling in question the reality of the miracle. If the book of the just was a more detailed history of facts, out of which this work of Josue has been compiled, as Theodoret supposes, the author might very well remit the more inquisitive reader to that authentic source. H. — Midst. It was then almost noon. C. — Josue was nevertheless afraid lest the day should not allow them time to destroy their fleeing enemies completely. H. — If the evening had been at hand, he would have said, return sun towards Gabaon, as it would have been on the west of his army. The battle had begun early in the morning, and the pursuit had lasted perhaps four or five hours. C. — Day. Heb. “about a whole day.” Many think that a day here comprises 24 hours; and as the sun had been above the horizon six hours, and continued other six, it must have been visible for the space of 36 hours, as the Jews believe, and as it is specified in S. Justin. Dial. The author of Eccli. xlvi. 5, says, Was not the sun stopped in his anger, and one day made as two? that is, 24 hour long, allowing 12 unequal ones to form a day, according to the reckoning of those times. Others suppose that the day of Josue might consist of 18 (C.) or of 48 hours. But how would the soldiers be able to support such a fatigue? They had been marching all the preceding night from Galgal. H. — If they had stopped to take refreshment, their enemies would have escaped. Hence some of the Fathers imagine, that God enabled his people to pursue them without taking any food. S. Jer. c. Jov. ii. They might, however, take some along with them, as it was then customary; and eat as they pursued, whenever they could find an opportunity. Josue had given no prohibition; and Jonathan observed that his father, Saul, had troubled Israel, by following a different plan. 1 K. xiv. 24. C.

Ver. 14. Long. This word is not found in Heb. “and there was no day like that, before it, or after it, that the Lord hearkened unto,” &c. But God had often wrought miracles before, at the prayer of his servants. The difference between this day and all others, must be therefore in the length, or in the stopping of the heavenly bodies. H. — The long day which the prayer of Ezechias procured, (4 K. xx. and Isai. xxxviii.) consisted of 32 hours; or, supposing that the retrograde motion of the sun was instantaneous on the dial, it might only be 22 hours in length. C. — But if the day of Ezechias had been even longer, the words of this text may be verified, that neither in times past, nor while the author lived, had any such day been known. See Amama, p. 383. H. — Obeying. God is ready to grant the requests of his servants. Isai. lviii. 9. “We remark something still stronger, in the power which he has given to priests, to consecrate the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the sacrament of the eucharist.” C.

Ver. 15. Galgal. Masius supposes, that here the quotation from the book of the just terminates. The Roman and Alex. Sept. place this verse at the end of the chapter. C. — Grabe has it in both places with a star, to shew that it is taken from Theodotion. H. — In effect, Josue did not return to his camp till he had completed the business of the day, by destroying the five kings. After which, he proceeded to conquer that part of the country. He might have designed to return, (C.) and even have begun his march, (D.) when he was diverted from proceeding, by the news that the kings had been discovered. So we often say, that a person does what he is on the point of doing. See Gen. xxxvii. 21. Num. xxxiv. 25.

Ver. 17. City, or territory. C. — The kings had sought their own safety in flight, leaving their people to make their escape as well as they could. But their cowardly behaviour only brought upon them a more dishonourable death. Josue and some of the forces stopped in the environs of Maceda, while the rest pursued after the fugitives, and slew all that had not strength to enter the fenced cities. H. — Then all the army assembled round their leader, took Maceda, and completed the victory of that most memorable day, by the ignominious death of the five kings. C. — God permitted some to escape, lest the land should be overrun with wild beasts; (Ex. xxiii. 29,) and to instruct us that his children must suffer tribulation, to prevent the growth of vice. W.

Ver. 21. No man, (nullus.) some supply canis, “dog,” alluding to the proverbial expression. Ex. xi. 7. Masius, &c. — Sept. “not one of the Israelites moved his tongue.” C. — All was profound silence, in expectation of what would be determined respecting the unfortunate kings. H.

Ver. 24. Feet, as Moses had foretold. Deut. xxxiii. 29. The conduct of Josue would appear cruel, if we did not reflect that he was only the executioner of the divine justice, which was pleased thus to punish these proud and impious princes, that others might not imitate their example.

Ver. 27. Down. Deut. xxi. The victorious army had returned some time before the evening, and had time to take the city of Maceda; though some, without reason, believe that this took place the day following.

Ver. 28. Remains of inhabitants. C. — The king was gibbeted and stoned. H.

Ver. 30. Lebna, not far from Eleutheropolis. From before this city Sennacherib dispatched his menacing order to Ezechias, 4 K. xix. 8. C.

Ver. 32. Lachis was still farther south. Josue took it the second day of the siege.

Ver. 33. Gazer, near Azotus, in the country of the Philistines. It is not said that Josue took this city. It was given long after to Solomon by the king of Egypt, 3 K. ix. 15. Josue xvi. 10. C.

Ver. 37. The king, viz. the new king, who succeeded him that was slain, v. 26. Ch. — Caleb afterwards took Hebron, which, it seems, the Chanaanites had seized again and fortified, while Josue was conquering other parts of the country. He could not leave garrisons in all the cities which he took, and hence he set many of them on fire. After the strength of the country was broken, he knew that the Israelites might easily subdue the few isolated cities which he was forced to leave behind. But they proved so negligent, that many places were left in the possession of the Chanaanites, which proved a stumbling block to God’s people.

Ver. 38. Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, “the city of the book,” (C. xv. 15,) or of Senna, (ib. 45,) near Hebron. It was taken again by Othoniel and Caleb.

Ver. 40. Hills of Judea. — South of the promised land. — Plain. Heb. Sephela, a flat country near Eleutheropolis. S. Jer. in Abd. i. 19. 1 Mac. xii. 38. — Asedoth, “of the springs.” — Remains. God ordered these people to be utterly destroyed, in punishment of their manifold abominations; and that they might not draw the Israelites into the like sins. Ch.

Ver. 41. Gaza. These cities were on the southern limits of the land of Chanaan, and of the Philistines. — Gosen, or Gessen, where the Hebrews had formerly dwelt. It was then very fertile. C. xiii. 3. The territory of Juda extended as far as the Nile; (C.) or this country may have resembled the country of Gessen. Gen. xlvi. M. — It seems indeed rather wonderful, that if this was a part of the promised land, God should order his people to leave it, as it were, to the Egyptians; and father they had occupied another part of the country, should seize it again. But he might have secret reasons for this order. H.