King James Bible
with Catholic Commentary by George Leo Haydock

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Ezra 10

Ezra encourages to reformation. (1-5) He assembles the people. (6-14) Reformation effected. (15-44)

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Ezra encourages to reformation

1 Now when Ezra had prayed, and when he had confessed, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there assembled unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children: for the people wept very sore.

2 And Shechaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said unto Ezra, We have trespassed against our God, and have taken strange wives of the people of the land: yet now there is hope in Israel concerning this thing.

3 Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of my lord, and of those that tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law.

4 Arise; for this matter belongeth unto thee: we also will be with thee: be of good courage, and do it.

5 Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do according to this word. And they sware.

He assembles the people

6 Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Johanan the son of Eliashib: and when he came thither, he did eat no bread, nor drink water: for he mourned because of the transgression of them that had been carried away.

7 And they made proclamation throughout Judah and Jerusalem unto all the children of the captivity, that they should gather themselves together unto Jerusalem;

8 And that whosoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the elders, all his substance should be forfeited, and himself separated from the congregation of those that had been carried away.

9 Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered themselves together unto Jerusalem within three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month; and all the people sat in the street of the house of God, trembling because of this matter, and for the great rain.

10 And Ezra the priest stood up, and said unto them, Ye have transgressed, and have taken strange wives, to increase the trespass of Israel.

11 Now therefore make confession unto the LORD God of your fathers, and do his pleasure: and separate yourselves from the people of the land, and from the strange wives.

12 Then all the congregation answered and said with a loud voice, As thou hast said, so must we do.

13 But the people are many, and it is a time of much rain, and we are not able to stand without, neither is this a work of one day or two: for we are many that have transgressed in this thing.

14 Let now our rulers of all the congregation stand, and let all them which have taken strange wives in our cities come at appointed times, and with them the elders of every city, and the judges thereof, until the fierce wrath of our God for this matter be turned from us.

Reformation effected

15 Only Jonathan the son of Asahel and Jahaziah the son of Tikvah were employed about this matter: and Meshullam and Shabbethai the Levite helped them.

16 And the children of the captivity did so. And Ezra the priest, with certain chief of the fathers, after the house of their fathers, and all of them by their names, were separated, and sat down in the first day of the tenth month to examine the matter.

17 And they made an end with all the men that had taken strange wives by the first day of the first month.

18 And among the sons of the priests there were found that had taken strange wives: namely, of the sons of Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren; Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah.

19 And they gave their hands that they would put away their wives; and being guilty, they offered a ram of the flock for their trespass.

20 And of the sons of Immer; Hanani, and Zebadiah.

21 And of the sons of Harim; Maaseiah, and Elijah, and Shemaiah, and Jehiel, and Uzziah.

22 And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

23 Also of the Levites; Jozabad, and Shimei, and Kelaiah, (the same is Kelita,) Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer.

24 Of the singers also; Eliashib: and of the porters; Shallum, and Telem, and Uri.

25 Moreover of Israel: of the sons of Parosh; Ramiah, and Jeziah, and Malchiah, and Miamin, and Eleazar, and Malchijah, and Benaiah.

26 And of the sons of Elam; Mattaniah, Zechariah, and Jehiel, and Abdi, and Jeremoth, and Eliah.

27 And of the sons of Zattu; Elioenai, Eliashib, Mattaniah, and Jeremoth, and Zabad, and Aziza.

28 Of the sons also of Bebai; Jehohanan, Hananiah, Zabbai, and Athlai.

29 And of the sons of Bani; Meshullam, Malluch, and Adaiah, Jashub, and Sheal, and Ramoth.

30 And of the sons of Pahathmoab; Adna, and Chelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezaleel, and Binnui, and Manasseh.

31 And of the sons of Harim; Eliezer, Ishijah, Malchiah, Shemaiah, Shimeon,

32 Benjamin, Malluch, and Shemariah.

33 Of the sons of Hashum; Mattenai, Mattathah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, and Shimei.

34 Of the sons of Bani; Maadai, Amram, and Uel,

35 Benaiah, Bedeiah, Chelluh,

36 Vaniah, Meremoth, Eliashib,

37 Mattaniah, Mattenai, and Jaasau,

38 And Bani, and Binnui, Shimei,

39 And Shelemiah, and Nathan, and Adaiah,

40 Machnadebai, Shashai, Sharai,

41 Azareel, and Shelemiah, Shemariah,

42 Shallum, Amariah, and Joseph.

43 Of the sons of Nebo; Jeiel, Mattithiah, Zabad, Zebina, Jadau, and Joel, Benaiah.

44 All these had taken strange wives: and some of them had wives by whom they had children.

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G Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Ver. 1. God, in the court of the people, before the eastern gate.

Ver. 2. Sechenias. 3 Esd. calls him “Jechoias.” See C. viii. 5. The name of Sechenias is not found among the transgressors; (v. 20.) but that of Jehiel is, v. 26. It seems, however, that the former returned with Esdras, and speaks in the name of the people, to encourage them to confess their guilt, (C.) unless his name be omitted. M. — Repentance. Heb. “yet there is hope, (Prot.) or an assembly of Israel.” Du Dieu.

Ver. 3. Covenant. The marrying with strange women seemed to have annulled the covenant of God. — Of them. The children were to follow the mothers, as in other unlawful connections. Their being suffered to remain behind, might have had dangerous consequences. C. — The custom of divorcing was then in force, (T.) and the Jews looked upon all as null, which was done contrary to the law; (V. Bede. E. C. Grot.) though here the law was only prohibitory. Cajet. T. — As all was directed by the will of God, the dictates of humanity would not be disregarded (C.) on this trying occasion. H. — The children migth be placed in houses for education. Cajet. T.

Ver. 4. Thy part. The high priest not acting, (M.) Esdras was appointed chief, (H.) and his abilities were universally acknowledged. C.

Ver. 6. Before. 3 Esd. “the court or hall of the temple.” H. — Eliasib. His son and successor is styled Joiada. 2 Esd. xii. 10. The same person had often many names, (C.) or Johanan might be a younger son. M. — Josephus (xi. 5.) says, that Esdras went to the apartments of John and Eliasib. H. — Esdras, though sent extraordinarily by God, repairs to the son of the priest, as S. Paul conferred with other apostles. Gal. ii. W.

Ver. 8. Away. Heb. and Sept. “subjected to anathema,” (C.) and utterly destroyed; (H.) or, according to some editions of the Sept. and Josephus, “consecrated to the temple.” Esdras exercised the power which had been entrusted to him. C. vii. 16.

Ver. 9. Ninth. Casleu, (Zac. vii. 1.) which corresponds with our November and December. M. — Street. Court, which afforded as yet no shelter from the rain. C. — This would tend to punish them for their sin, and to make them more sensible to it. W.

Ver. 11. Confession. Sept. “give praise;” which is done by repentance and virtue. M. — Confess your faults, and submit to the justice of God. Jos. vii. 19. C.

Ver. 14. Cities. It is not clear whether the rulers went to the different cities, or the principal men of each gave information, and caused the guilty to appear before Esdras, at Jerusalem. H.

Ver. 16. So. Cajetan improperly concludes, that the sentence was not put in execution; because Nehemias (C. xiii. 23.) complains of such marriages. C. — But the guilty might have resumed their women. H. — Went. Heb. “were separated.” H. — By making a small change, we may translate, with 3 Esd. “and Esdras separated or chose the men.” Josephus seems generally to have followed the Greek of 3 Esd. The Syriac says there were 20 judges.

Ver. 19. Hands. Thus the Persians confirmed their most solemn engagements. C.

Ver. 25. Israel. Laymen, (C.) not of the tribe of Levi. M.

Ver. 30. Moab. The inhabitants of this town, as well as of Nebo, (v. 43.) are specified.

Ver. 44. Children. Heb. may be, “and some of these women had exposed their children.” But most follow the Sept. and Vulg. 3 Esd. ix. 36, “and they ejected them with their children.” None was spared. C. — One great inconvenience of such connections is, that the offspring is illegitimate. W. — Only 17 priests, 10 Levites, and 86 laymen, are stigmatized as guilty of this scandal; yet these fill Israel with confusion, and Esdras with extreme affliction. H.