King James Bible
with Catholic Commentary by George Leo Haydock

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Ezekiel 31

The glory of Assyria. (1-9) Its fall, and the like for Egypt. (10-18)

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The glory of Assyria

1 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude; Whom art thou like in thy greatness?

3 Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs.

4 The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent her little rivers unto all the trees of the field.

5 Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long because of the multitude of waters, when he shot forth.

6 All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all great nations.

7 Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: for his root was by great waters.

8 The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.

9 I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.

Its fall, and the like for Egypt

10 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height, and he hath shot up his top among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height;

11 I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness.

12 And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

13 Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field shall be upon his branches:

14 To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves for their height, neither shoot up their top among the thick boughs, neither their trees stand up in their height, all that drink water: for they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit.

15 Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when he went down to the grave I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed: and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

16 I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth.

17 They also went down into hell with him unto them that be slain with the sword; and they that were his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the heathen.

18 To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth: thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD.

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G Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Ver. 1. Year, about a month before the fall of Jerusalem.

Ver. 3. Assyrian. The ruin of this great empire (C.) might have admonished the king of Egypt of his frail condition. H. — About thirty-eight years before (C.) Ninive had been taken, and its king (Sarac or Chinaladan) slain by his own general, Nabopolassar, and by Astyages, of Media. They divided the empire between them, and the father of Nabuchodonosor fixed his residence at Babylon. Usher, A. 3378. — Cedar. Sept. “cypress.” — Top; the king of Ninive. C. — Egypt’s monarch thought himself invincible; yet would fall like the Assyrians. W.

Ver. 4. Roots. Various nations paid tribute to the Assyrians, (S. Jer. C.) while he sent his troops, like rivulets, to keep all in subjection. Theod.

Ver. 11. I have delivered. Here the time past is put for the future; i.e. I shall deliver.The mighty one, &c. viz. Nabuchodonosor, who conquered both the Assyrians and Egyptians; (Ch.) or rather his father, Nabopolassar, subdued the former. v. 3. H.

Ver. 12. Strangers; revolted Assyrians. See Ps. xvii. 46.

Ver. 13. Branches. The nations continued, but submitted to another master.

Ver. 14. Pit. The new king would appoint fresh governors.

Ver. 15. Waters, as if they bewailed his fate. C. — Those whom the king of Ninive had exalted, and the people, who wished not to submit to a foreigner, would no doubt lament the slaughtered monarch, new silent (H.) in the grave. Theod.

Ver. 16. Comforted. The ghosts of princes who had been subject to Serac, seeing his fall, bore their own misfortune with greater content. In the grave there is no distinction of master and slave. C. — Surviving princes expected some emolument from the change. H.

Ver. 17. Arm; those in power. Sept. “his seed.” Heb. Zora, (H.) means both.

Ver. 18. Famous king of Assyria, or of Egypt. — Pharao. C. —

Mutato nomine de te

Fabula narratur. Hor. 1. Sat. 1.

— Though Egypt be like the most potent kingdoms, it shall likewise fall. W.